Survey Measurement Tapes, Surverying Tapes Types, Steel Tap, Cloth Linen type of Tapes all about surveying discussed here.
Types of Surveying Tapes, How To Measure Land Area Survey
The process of surveying is mainly in three stages. Taking the general view, observation and measurement, Data presentations with these steps surveying have been done. First take a look overall picture of what is required, which type of survey work undertaken in land surveying. Plane surveying and geodetic surveying are two types that covered all types of lands. Plane surveying the land surface of the earth is considered a plane. All angles are considered to be plane angles. for small areas less than 250 km2 plane surveying can safely be used. Plane surveying is mostly used for canal, railway, highway, residential, commercial building purposes. Based on the instrument used; surveys can be classified into
Types of Surveys, Measurement Surveying Tapes
i) Chain tape surveys
ii) Compass surveys
iii) Plane table surveys
iv) Theodolite surveys
Types of Tapes Used in Surveying
There are 5 types of tapes available in surveying for linear measurements and they are as follows :
- Linen Cloth Tape
- Woven Metallic Tape
- Steel Tape
- Synthetic Tape
- Invar Tape
Cloth Linen Tap: Cloth tap is widely used to measure Inch to Inch land residential properties. Linen tape is a varnished strip made of closely woven linen. The medium width of the strip is about 12 to 16 mm. It is available in different length starts from 10m, 20m, 30m available maximum up to 50 Meters. Metallic handles wounded in leather at both ends. to carry, linen tapes are friendly, lightweight. These tapes may shrink when exposed to water and also elongate when pulled. These tapes are not suitable for accurate surveying measurements. These are generally used for measuring offsets and for ordinary works. it showing some variation in length and it should be used for accurate measurements. It is not recommended for leveling.
Chain Survey: Chain survey is the simplest method of surveying. it gives the most accurate results all the time. In this survey, only measurements are taken in the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation, etc. are done in the office. Most used in agriculture lands. The most used technique for long sided lands. This is most suitable adapted to small plane areas with very few details. it gives quite accurate results when surveyors has done properly. to this method Chain, tape, ranging rod materials are requirements. it suitable for fairly level and open area lands only. Chain Surveying is the simplest and oldest form of land surveying.
Measurement Equipment Chain is usually made of steel wire. it consists of long links joined by shorter links. It is designed for hard usage. Chains are made up of links, 200 mm from center to center of each middle connecting ring and surveying brass are attached at every meter position. Gunter’s chain and engineering chains are mostly used. It is more accurate but less robust than the chain. The operating tension and temperature for which it was graduated should be indicated on the band.
Process of Chain and Tape Survey:
Traverse type Survey: Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks. Traverse networks involve placing survey stations along a line or path of travel and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point. When two lines meet together in a cone, the individual lines are called a traverse. The traversing is the process of establishing these lines, is called traversing, while the connecting lines joining two points on the ground. Joining two while bearing and distance is known as traverse.
Types of Traverse:
Open Traverse: When a sequence of connected lines extends along a general direction and does not return to the starting point, it is known as ‘open traverse’ is also known as Unclosed traverse. When we do not return to the starting point, then it will be an open traverse.
When a series of connected lines form a closed circuit, i.e. when the finishing point coincides with the starting point of a survey, it is called a ‘closed traverse’. When we return back it the starting point. Then it will be a closed traverse. In chain and tape survey closed traverse is usually done in small areas.
If surveying is done along with BC then it will be used to find out AB and BO. BO will also act as an arm for OAB .It is not a good practice to measure common arm for different triangles, because an error is carried forward cumulatively.
Chain and Tape Surveying Advantages:
It is a comparatively simple method of surveying
It is very suitable for a small and level area
The survey can be plotted on any convenient scale
Chain Surveying Disadvantages:
Plotting is tedious and takes long time
It is time consuming and slow
It is not found suitable for a large and uneven area
Chain Surveying Precautions:
Ranging rods should be erected as vertical as possible at the exact station point.
Linen tapes should be frequently tested for length
Always keep tapes reeled up when not in use.
The colored cloth should be tied to arrow, seen clearly on the field.
Metallic Tape: Metallic tape is made of high grde synthetic material with strong metallic. Made bronze, brass and copper wire. Standard lengths for metallic tapes are 50 and 10 ft. Metallic tapes are generally used for rough measurements, such as cross-sectional work, road-work slope staking, side shots in topographic surveys. The tapes are manufactured from yarn and metal wire. Metric steel tapes used for small works, wooden carpenter works. it gives accurate works and are made of steel or stainless steel. surveying tapes are lighter and delicate and get broken easily. Invar tapes are used for the highest precision works
Steel Tape: Steel tapes generally came up with the metal case with automatic winding device. The tape is withdrawn from the case by using a hand during measuring and it is rewound into the case by just pressing button provided on the case.
Follow IS 1269-2 ( 1997) Codebook for Tape Standards
Campus surveying is also one of the famous type of survey instruments that forms the subject of this section is the compass. Compass surveys are mainly used for the rapid filling of the detail in larger surveys and for explanatory works. Prismatic compass used for the measurement of magnetic bearings. to fixing prismatic compass on the tripod for measuring the bearing of a line. Centering, leveling and focusing set properly.
Type of Surveyors:
- General Practise Surveyors
- Planning and Development Surveyors
- Building Surveyors
- The Quantity Surveyors
- Rural Practise Surveyors
- Mineral Surveyors
- Land Surveyors
1. Cloth and linen tape :- It is available in 10m, 20m, 25m, and 30m length. It is not accurate .
2. Glass fibre tape :- These tape are not strech or shrink due to changing temperature and moisture content. It is accurate than cloth tape
3. Metallic tape :- These tapes more durable than glass fibre tape & cloth tape
4. Steel tape :- It is more accurate than metallic tape
5. Invar tape :- It is made up of steel (64%) & nickel (36%). It is more accurate than all other tapes.
👉 Arrow :- It is used to indicate position of the end of chain on the ground.
👉 Peg :- It is used to indicate position of survey stations or end points of the survey line.
👉 Ranging rod :- It is used to locate intermediate points such that these points lie on the straight line joining the end stations.
👉 Ranging :- The process of establishing the intermediate points is known as ranging.
Resection: Resection is the process of determining the plotted position of the station occupied by the plane table, by means of sights taken towards known points, locations of which have been plotted.