Steel Structures: Steel Structure is nothing but organized combination of custom-designed Structural steel members as per engineering requirement. Steel Structure involves sub-structure or members in building made from structural steel. It is one of the materials used for any kind of steel construction.
Steel Structures Designs Analysis
Various type of Structures which comes under the edges of steel structures. it may be used for industrial, residential, office, and commercial purposes. Mostly heavy standard steel structures are used for establishing towers, power transmissions, mobile network signal towers and telephone relay towers, etc. structure which is made from organized combination of structural steel members designed to carry loads and provide adequate rigidity called as Steel Structure. This structure gives high strength, excellent ductility, and durability. when comparing with other material structures, Steel has more seismic resistance. withstand extensive deformation without failure even under high tensile stress.
Properties of steel structure can be predicted with a very high degree of certainty. for this type of structure material prefabrication and mass production is usually possible. it has good fatigue strength. The steel structures can be strengthened any time in the future and it is reusable material. steel shows elastic behavior up to a relatively high and usually well-defined stress level.
The Structural design consists of proportioning various elements of the building such that loads acting on it are transferred safely to the ground. For Transferring loads to the ground level. Mainbody of the present-day structures consists of RCC or Steel.
Where & when using steel structures
- Long-span structures & Infrastructures [ Airports, Stadiums, Train Stations ]]
- Multi-storey & high-rise buildings [ World Trade center, Tai-bei ]
- Buildings of heavy-duty plants [ Power Plants, Thermal Plants ]
- Tower & mast structures [ TV Towers, Eiffel towers ]
- Load Bridges for Transporation
- Generalized structures: mechanical
Steel Building Precast settings assembling various parts that are prefabricated, generally from sections or profiles and sheets away from the building site.
Main structural types
- Truss structures
- Bar or truss members
- Frame structures
- Beams and columns
- Grids structures
- latticed structure or dome
- Arch Design structures
- Prestressed structures
- Beam bridge
- Truss bridge
- Truss members
- Arch bridge
- Cable-stayed bridge
- Suspension bridge
Steel design special considerations are required in the steel design. mainly it affects size and shape, buckling, minimum thickness, and connection designs. Mainly steel is manufactured in steel mills and is available in certain shapes and sizes. Structural steel has an ultimate load capacity.
Various loads expected to act on structure classified as Dead load, imposed loads, wind loads, earthquake loads, erection loads, accidental loads, and secondary effects. Dead loads include the weight of all permanent construction. covered imposed loads [ Live load, crane load, snow load, dust load, impact loan, and horizontal loads ] The loads which keep on changing from time to time are called live loads. it mainly values loads for residential buildings, education buildings, assembly building, industrial building, and storage rooms. The seismic coefficient method and response spectrum methods are computing seismic forces.
Advantages of Steel Structures:
Steel structures have many advantages. Over comparision to the various material properties. It has high strength per unit mass. Hence even for large structures. Saving Space in construction and improving the aesthetic view. It has assured quality and high durability rate. Steel Structures can be strengthened at any later time. It needs just welding additional sections. Steel is the best water and gas resistance structure. This material is reusable and easy to handle.
Disadvantages of Steel Structures:
The main thing is Corrosion, Steel structures are failed to overcome corrosion issues. It is susceptible to corrosion. Steel structure high standard grade, its maintenance cost is high. Economy wise, it has various components. Steel Members are costly.
Structural steel mainly classified as mild steel and high tensile steel. Structural steel is also known as standard quality steel. its requirement has been specified in IS 226-1975. High tensile steel mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are enhanced by alloying with small properties of some other alloys or increasing the carbon content.
Structural Steel Properties
The Properties of steel required for engineering designs varied as physical properties and mechanical properties. Considered points of the Unit mass of teel, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ration, modulus of rigidity, coefficient of thermal expansion. Covered Mechanical Properties considering yield stress, Tensile or ultimate stress, and Notch toughness.
Type of Members and Connections
Steel Structural members in steel structures are thin-walled sections. Subjected to internal axial forces, shear forces, bending moments and torsional moments are termed as tension members, compression members, beam-columns, or torsional members depending on the nature of the forces.
Tension Members: It is subjected to axial tensile force only, depending on the load intensity, tension members may be fabricated using single or multiple structural sections. on this tensile forces, load carrying capacity is always depending on steel structure size, the arrangement of holes, and the nature of connections. as well it affects in compression members. The entire member, cross-sectional shape, length of the member, and material residual stresses and end connections influence the buckling. Design of column members. Effective area and buckling behavior of compression members
Beams section is subject to bending moment and shear due to loads, shears induce bending compressive stress and diagonal compression respectively. The Walls being thin, there may be local or overall buckling in beams under compressive stresses due to moments or shears.
Design concept on Load carrying capacity. The stress at any point of the material in the structure is not allowed to exceed the permissible stress. The Plastic behavior of the steel is also used to make some assumptions in the working stress method. In the plastic design method, the ductility behavior is fully made use of in the stress distribution across the section. The factor of safety in the working stress method and the load factor in plastic design or limit state design is intended to account. Influence factors are mentioned here.
- Possibility Of Overloading
- Approximation and Uncertainties in Structural analysis
- Presence of residual stresses
- The geometric dimension of members.
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