The lintel is a Very common Point in building construction. A Linter is Structural horizontal support used to span an opening in a wall or between two vertical supports. It is frequently used over windows and doors mainly. Its placed over the opening of doors and windows, verandas. it gives additional support to the masonry workload. Lintel beams provide supports to the openings in building and Transfer that load safely to the masonry walls or columns. For lintel, most common material for constructions is timber, steel, and concrete.
What is Lintel ? Types Of Lintel Materials
Creating an opening to the building requires careful engineering as you need to make sure that structural and thermal stability is maintained while doing so. The Exterior walls of the house and some interior walls are known as a load-bearing walls. The function of a Lintel is to carry the weight of the structure above the opening. it blocks to support each other by the mutual pressure of their weight and the structure remains in position by resistance from the loads, supports. lintel reinforcement and structure details are varied by building structure and type of structure Masonry walls and through dowels columns and lintel support on casted columns along with detailed lintel schedule different size, width, and thickness. Traditional manner, Mainly lintel made of reinforced concrete are widely used to span the openings for doors, windows.
The main reinforcement is provided at the bottom and half of these bars are cranked at the ends. Shear stirrups are provided to resist transverse shear. Design and reinforcement Lintel beams are rectangular in plan and section. Lintel beams generally end into the masonry walls, it carried weight to the masonry walls and its width is the same to the wall width. The lintel can also be used as Decorative architectural elements. in market precast concrete lintels also available. it very economical and provide robust support for structures. Lintels must have adequate support at each end, and typically, the length of lintel for a masonry wall is calculated by measuring the total width of the structural opening. Materials such as wood, stone, steel, brick, and concrete are used both for better strength.
Purposes of Lintel Beams
- To Support the walls above the opening doors
- To provide safeguard of the windows and doors
- to transfer loads to sidewalls
Types of Lintels Based on Materials of Construction:
- Wooden Lintels
- Stone Lintels
- Brick Lintels
- Reinforced Brick Lintels
- Concrete Lintels
Choosing the type of lintel depends on the cost budget and availability materials. Different materials used for lintel constructions by client choice.
Wooden / Timber Lintels: Available everywhere, Budget-friendly. Wood timber lintels are mainly used in the height areas. hilly station areas are mainly wooden timbers are available. In market use of timber is limited because of the high cost. By climate change, timber is liable to decay without proper ventilation. It is less durable compared with another type of lintel materials. timber lintels are strengthened by the provision of mild steel plates at their top and bottom
Stone Lintel: It is Old age method traditional like, it’s like mainly used in this area where the quality stone material available. Its use of mainly confined to stone masonry structures. Stone Lintels also high cost and inability to withstand excessive transverse stress. For specific design construction, stones thickness is a very important factor.
Concrete Lintel: Reinforced Concrete Lintel method is most widely used in construction. very common in use because of their durability, rigidity, strength, and fire resisting properties. Concrete lintels most used in heavy loads and larger span and also they are economical and easy in construction. The Main advantage of this Reinforced Concrete lintels is being the adaptability to suit size and shape. Lintel width should be the same as. The depth of lintel depends on the length of the span and the loading magnitude.
Lintels are also important in terms of their role in reducing heat loss from a building and the occurrence of damp and condensation.RCC lintels are fire-proof, durable, strong, economical, and easy to construct. its Excessive load is not applied over the ending supports of lintels. in some construction Plain concrete lintels also used. This Type o Lintels are prepared with Plain concrete as stee bars are not used in it. Concrete is very strong in compressions but in weak in tension. RCC used due to its strength, fire resistance, rigidity, and ease of construction. its economical and durable as compared to other types of lintels. comparing Precast and cast in situ lintels differing, design wise also cast in situ lintels are best.
Brick Lintels: Brick Lintels are constructed with hard well burnt quality bricks. its suitable for a small type of building with lightweight loadings. Bricks with Frogs filled with mortar give more shear resistance at end joints than the normal bricks. formwork is filled with cement concrete (1:2:4). Concrete is firmly pressed during filling it into the framework to avoid empty spaces. The main reinforcement is provided at the bottom of the lintel consists of 8 to 10 mm diameters as per structure design. The arrangement of the bricks should be such as that there is enough space in lengthwise between the adjacent bricks for the insertion of mild steel bars as reinforcement.
Steel Lintels: Steel Lintels can suitable for superimposed load type buildings. Heavy opening gaps and large spacing designs. These lintels consist of channel sections or rolled steel joists. Depending upon the requirements, the lintel can be a single section or combinations of two or more. Steel has the advantage over concrete in that the lintels are usually lighter and are easier to handle on-site. consisting of steel angles or channel sections in concrete, are used for small spans and light loading, The steel built-up sections are embedded in concrete to protect them from the effects of corrosion and fire. the remaining gap will be filled with RCC Lintel.
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