Design Water Tank Design, Construction Process. Watertank Cost Estimation. Requirements
Reinforced Concrete Watertanks Construction details, Materials designs as per IS 3370:2009. The water tank design depends upon the location of the tank and soil properties. The Tanks are made in different shapes most commonly circular and rectangular shapes are mostly used. and several types of tanks like above ground, flat bottomed, cylindrical tanks for the water storages.
Design Water Tank, Concrete Construction Method
Best Watertank designed as crack free structures to eliminate any leakage. In order to avoid leakage and Shrinkage issues to provide higher strength concrete of grade M20 and above is recommended for liquid retaining structures.
Types of Water Tanks
- Underground Tanks
- Tank resting on Ground
- Overhead tank
Overhead and Underground water tanks had been constructed for water storage purposes and further utilization. Heavy structure overhead tanks ideal to use for domestic and commercial purposes.
The underground tank is used for storing water below the ground level. in most cases, underground water tanks collect and store runoff from ground catchments. Basically, the Underground water rank has three basic components top slab, sidewalls, and base slab. For more large storage underground water storages is most advantageous choice. for construction, the material the tank is types of steel, aluminum, composite overwrapped metal tank, fiberglass metal liner tanks. Rectangular shapes make the best use of available space. for design, stability, strength is the main involving points. Uplift check, check for stresses on soil, design of critical sections are considering points. Plastic underground water ranks are a great alternative to concrete constructed tanks. Underground water tanks have various components. The top slab will be designed as normal simply supported slab based on the self-weight and superimposed loads. The design of sidewalls and the base slab will based on assuming. Tank full of water or no water inside water tank soil pressure from outside.
construction of concrete structure for the water storage tanks are the imperviousness of concrete is most essential . The permeability of any uniform and thoroughly compacted concrete of given mix proportions is mainly dependent on water cement ratio. Strength of water-retaining structure with considering all points. The water-cement ratio increases more results in an increase in the permeability by condition .The decrease in water cement ratio will therefore be desirable to decrease the permeability as well, but very much reduced water cement ratio may cause compaction difficulties and prove to be harmful also and reason to shrinkage concrete and cracking.
Water Tank Cracks, Repair Methods
Cracks can be prevented by avoiding the timber shuttering uses. cracking risk factor can also be minimized by reducing the restraints on free expansion or contraction of the structure. Check crack repair methods. Cracking may be caused due to restraint to shrinkage, expansion and contraction of concrete due to temperature or shrinkage and swelling due to moisture effects. A crack width of 0.1mm has been accepted as permissible value in liquid retaining structures. Such restraint may be caused by
- The interaction between reinforcement and concrete during shrinkage due to drying.
- The boundary conditions.
- The differential conditions prevailing through the large thickness of massive concrete.
Minimize cracking due to shrinkage and temperature, minimum reinforcement is recommended as:
i) For thickness 100 mm = 0.3 %
ii) For thickness 450 mm = 0.2%
iii) For thickness between 100 mm to 450 mm = varies linearly from 0.3% to 0.2%
Circular Water Tanks:
Circular tanks have minimum surface area when compared to other shapes for a particular capacity of storage required. Hence the quantity of material required for circular water tank is less than required for other shapes. But the form work for a circular tank is very complex and expensive when compared to other shapes. Square and Rectangular water tanks are generally used under ground or on the ground. Circular tanks are preferred for elevated tanks.
Rectangular tanks are used when the storage capacity is small and circular tanks prove
uneconomical for small capacity. for this type of tanks moments are caused in two directions of the wall ie., both in horizontal as well as in vertical direction.
For problem solving, Design issues first find
- Dimension of tank
- Analysis for hoop tension and bending moment
- Design of section
- Check for tensile stress
- Distribution Steel
- Base slab
Advantages and Disadvantages:
Steel storage tanks have higher cost effectiveness than tanks made of other materials.
Concrete water tanks have higher durability than plastic water tanks
Fiberglass tanks have extreme durability and tightness. In comparison with other materials
Fiberglass tanks are much lighter than comparable concrete tanks.
Concrete Water Tanks keep water clean and cold compared to plastic water tanks.
Steel Tanks good longevity even without painting.
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